types of building columns

10 Types of Building Columns You Need to Know

Building columns play a very crucial role in providing stability and support to structures. They not only provide the facility of distribution of the loads properly but also provide aesthetic appeal to the building. Furthermore, there are different types of columns in building construction depending based on the classifications. This blog post sheds light on different types of building columns on the basis of shapes and their uses.

Table of Contents

What is a Column

A column is a vertical structure that provides support to a building or other structure. Columns are typically made of materials such as concrete, steel, or stone and are used to distribute weight and loads evenly throughout a structure. Furthermore, they are designed to withstand compressive forces and are an essential component of many different types of buildings and infrastructure projects. Moreover, columns come in various shapes and sizes, each with its own unique features and applications.

Types of Columns Based on the Shape

There are many types of columns based on the shape although most of them are discussed here.

1. Round Columns

Round columns are also called cylindrical columns. They are the most column types of building columns.


  • They are perfect for structures that require high load-bearing capacity and support, such as bridges and tall buildings.
  • Round columns distribute the load evenly throughout the column.
  • They are also aesthetically pleasing.
Types of Building Columns

2. Square Columns

Square columns are those which are square in shape.


  • Suitable for buildings that require high aesthetic value.
  • Square columns can also bear heavy loads, making them ideal for use in commercial and residential buildings.
  • They provide a stable base and can withstand lateral forces.
Types of Building Columns

3. Rectangular Columns

Rectangular columns are commonly used in buildings that require high load-bearing capacity.


  • Rectangular columns are used in bridges and other infrastructure projects.
  • They have a larger surface area than round columns, making them more suitable for buildings that require a wider base.
Types of Building Columns

4. Hexagonal Columns

Hexagonal columns are used in structures that require a high degree of stability.


  • They are visually appealing and provide an elegant look to the structure.
  • They have a wide base supporting them against high wind and seismic loads.
Types of Building Columns

5. Octagonal Columns

Octagonal columns are ideal for buildings that require a stable base and an aesthetic appeal


  • They are used in residential and commercial buildings.
  • They provide a classic look to the structure and can bear heavy loads.

6. Fluted Columns

Fluted columns are decorative columns that are commonly used in buildings that require an aesthetic appeal.


  • These are typically made of stone, marble, or concrete and have grooves or flutes that run vertically along the length of the column.
Types of Building Columns

7. Doric Columns

Doric columns are a type of fluted column that is used in classical Greek and Roman architecture.


  • They have a simple design.
  • Doric columns have a wider base and are thinner at the top, making them ideal for buildings that require a stable base.
Types of Building Columns

8. Ionic Columns

Ionic columns are another type of fluted column that is commonly used in classical architecture.


  • They are taller and more slender than Doric columns.
  • They are also used in residential and commercial buildings, temples, etc.
Types of Building Columns

9. Corinthian Columns

Corinthian columns are the most decorative type of fluted column.


  • They are used in buildings that require an elegant and sophisticated look.
  • Corinthian columns have intricate carvings and designs.
Types of Building Columns

10. Composite Columns

Composite columns are a combination of different types of columns, such as the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns.


  • They are used in buildings that require a unique and sophisticated look.
  • Composite columns have a wide base and an intricate design.
Types of Building Columns


The type of building columns used in construction depends on the building’s structural requirements, aesthetics, and intended use. Moreover, the column’s shape plays a crucial role in determining its load-bearing capacity, stability, and aesthetic appeal.

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